|Located 45 kilometers northeast of the county seat of Pingding, Niangzi Xiao (Smiling Woman) Pass was an important pass on the Great Wall, and a vital communication gateway between Shanxi and Hebei provinces. The pass was a structure of the Ming Dynasty built in 1542. A legend claims that Princess Pingyang, the younger sister of Emperor Li Shimin of the Tang Dynasty (618-907), once led a troop of female soldiers garrisoning at the place. The pass was named after this legend. Demarcating the two provinces of Shanxi and Hebei, local people are used to saying "inside or outside the pass" to mean "inside or outside Shanxi Province." Situated on a cliff beside a deep valley, the pass is strategically located and difficult to access.|
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